Yale Center for Teaching and Learning

Developing Reliable Student Assessments

Reliability refers to how well a score represents an individual’s ability, and within education, ensures that assessments accurately measure student knowledge. Because reliability refers specifically to score, a full test or rubric cannot be described as reliable or unreliable. Rather, reliable scores help students grasp their level of development, and help instructors improve their teaching effectiveness. A variety of methods are commonly used to estimate reliability of scores, and instructors can make reliability methods transparent in order to motivate student effort and assure them of accuracy.

Instructors should note that there are many reasons why a score may not perfectly represent a student’s knowledge. For instance, test anxiety, distractions in the testing environment, or guesswork could cause discrepancies between a score and an individual’s actual ability. While some of these factors cannot be completely eliminated, instructors can improve reliability when designing assessments, grading student work, and analyzing student performance on individual test items or criteria.

Examples of Reliability Measures: 

  • Inter-rater – Two separate individuals (for instance, instructor and TF, or peers) evaluate and score a subject’s test, essay, or performance, and the scores from each of the raters are correlated. The correlation coefficient is then used as an estimate of reliability. Several other statistics can also be calculated by instructors to compare the scores from two raters. For instance, Cohen’s kappa considers the amount of agreement that may occur between two raters as a result of chance.
  • Test-Retest – Individuals take the same test on separate occasions and the scores can be correlated by instructors, using the correlation coefficient as the estimate of reliability. Because individuals learn from tests, this approach should be sensitive to the amount of time and degree of learning between test administrations.
  • Parallel Forms – Two equivalent tests, measuring the same concepts, knowledge, skills, abilities, etc., are given to the same group of individuals, and the scores can be correlated by instructors. The correlation coefficient is the estimate of reliability. Instructors should note that designing two separate but identical tests can be very difficult.
  • Split-Half – One test is divided into two sets of items. An individual’s score on half of the test is correlated with their score on the other half of the test. This approach accounts for testing fatigue and gradual shifts in approach as the test was designed. Instructors can decide to split a test in many different ways (i.e. even versus odd, first versus last, etc.), but should be aware that the splitting method will influence the correlation coefficient.
  • Cronbach’s Alpha – Cronbach’s Alpha is the most commonly reported measure of reliability when analyzing Likert type scales or multiple choice tests. It is generally interpreted as the mean of all possible split-half combinations, or the average or central tendency when a test is split against itself. For reference, an alpha above .7 is typically considered acceptable. Cronbach’s Alpha can be calculated by instructors in Excel or any other statistical software package.


Reliability can be increased by a number of methods. If the evaluation is performance- based or an essay:

  • Design a rubric – Rubrics help the evaluator(s) / grader(s) focus on the same criteria across all submissions. Rubrics can be designed in a variety of ways, and also make grading standards and performance expectations clear for students.
  • Grade item by item – If students are given multiple essays or problem sets, instructors can evaluate/grade the first essay/problem on each student’s paper before grading the second essay/problem. This allows the evaluator/grader to apply the same set of criteria at a time, and minimizes the effect of the impact of fatigue or mood differentially affecting any one student’s performance.
  • Grade anonymously – Instructors may wish to know whose work they grade, in order to provide feedback about course-wide performance. However, every grader/evaluator possesses some biases, which can either positively or negatively affect individual students score. For instance, if a student is a hard worker in class, an instructor may be more lenient when grading an essay from that student. Instructors can grade anonymously to minimize the effect of bias in the grading process. Instructors can bypass a student’s name when grading, or consider other blind grading approaches. 
  • Train graders – If multiple graders are being used, instructors should provide training to the graders on how to utilize rubrics or evaluation/grading criteria. Sample essays or performance can be provided. Additionally, for each essay or problem, a subset of submissions should be independently scored by multiple graders. Inter-rater reliability can be calculated on the subset, and the graders can discuss any discrepancies before grading the rest of the submissions.

If the evaluation consists of a multiple choice test or Likert-type items:

  • Design the assessment using a table of specifications - A table of specifications outlines the content that is covered in a test or assessment. A table of specifications typically consists of three main components. First, a list of topics that are covered on the assessment. Second, a classification or taxonomy (i.e. Bloom’s taxonomy) that describes the types of questions that are on the exam. Third, an indicator of the number of questions to be presented that corresponds to each content area and classification.
Sample Table of Specifications: Using Components of Bloom’s Taxonomy
Topic or Content Area Multiple choice questions measuring recall Multiple choice questions measuring application Multiple choice questions measuring evaluation Total Number of Questions
Chemical Reactions Q 1, 6, 7 Q 12, 14, 17, 19 Q 21, 24, 26, 29, 30, 35, 38, 39 15
Thermodynamics Q 2, 3, 8, 9 Q 11, 15, 18 Q 22, 25, 31 10
Chemical Equilibrium Q 4, 5, 10 Q 13, 16, 20 Q 23, 27, 28, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 40 15
Total Number of Questions 10 10 20 40
  • The table of specifications allows for subscales to be created among multiple concepts being tested. For instance, separate reliability coefficients can be calculated for items that test the first unit and items that measure the second unit. A table of specifications will also provide detailed feedback to students and instructor about content covered.
  • Conduct item-level diagnostics to improve the test. Please note that some testing software can provide the data described below for you in the form of a report. 
    • Cronbach’s alpha – When calculating Cronbach’s Alpha, it is possible to determine which items are negatively impacting reliability. Those items could then be removed to increase the reliability of the score.
    • Item difficulty – The percentage of students who answered an item correctly. Items that are too difficult can negatively impact reliability, if difficulty can successfully be related to the question or content, and not to student study performance. However, items that are too easy do not detect differences between high and lower performing students.
    • Item discrimination – Examines how well an item is able to discriminate between high performing and low performing students. Items that do not perform as expected (higher performing students get the answer right more than lower performing students) negatively impact reliability.
    • Distractor analysis – Determines which distractor questions students (or students of different performance levels) choose. Any distractor that is not selected (or is rarely selected) should be changed. If students are able to eliminate answer choices, they have a higher probability of guessing the correct answer without understanding the content.

Further Reading

Cronbach LJ. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika 16: 297-334.

Guttman L. (1945). A basis for analyzing test-retest reliability. Psychometrika 10: 255-282.

Gwet KL. (2014). Handbook of inter-rater reliability: The definitive guide to measuring the extent of agreement among raters. Advanced Analytics, LLC.

Malouff J. (2008). Bias in grading. College Teaching 56(3):191-192.

Murphy KR  & Davidshofer CO. (1988). Psychological testing. Principles, and Applications. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Osterlind, SJ. (2006). Modern measurement: Theory, principles, and applications of mental appraisal. Pearson: Upper Saddle River, NJ.