Yale Center for Teaching and Learning

CIPP Model

The CIPP model was created in the 1960s by Daniel Stufflebeam[1]and is considered a decision-oriented model that systematically collects information about a program to identify strengths and limitations in content or delivery, to improve program effectiveness or plan for the future of a program.[2]Users of this model are often focused on management-oriented evaluation, as this framework combines four stages of evaluation. The focus is on continuous improvement by concentrating on four areas of a program: the overall goals or mission Context Evaluation); the plans and resources (Input Evaluation); the activities or components (Process Evaluation); and the outcomes or objectives (Product Evaluation).


Process for CIPP

By moving through each of the four areas, programs can identify important components to assess where touchpoints for revision are located. Starting with context evaluation, evaluators examine the resources and background within the program, such as the scope of the evaluation and supports the program has in place. Looking at overarching goals, exploring background information and cultural context are all components included during this stage. Once the goals are assessed, evaluators can move into the input evaluation stage of the model. During the input evaluation stage, review focuses on identifying the key stakeholders and examining the program budget. This stage also collects information about planning and strategies for implementation including human resources and timeline. During the third stage of process evaluation, the activities of the program are assessed with the focus on continuous improvement-what is being done, is it being done well and what needs to be addressed for change? Finally, evaluators using CIPP measure the outcomes of the program and how effectively those outcomes are being addressed. They can ask: what is the impact and how sustainable is the program[3]? As depicted in the figure above, governing all of the stages is the mission or core values of the program to continually refer to during each stage of evaluation, see reference for example.[4]

[1]Stufflebeam, D. (2003). The CIPP model of evaluation. In T. Kellaghan, D. Stufflebeam & L. Wingate (Eds.), Springer international handbooks of education: International handbook of educational evaluation.

[2]Zhang, G., Zeller, N., Griffith, R., Metcalf, D., Williams, J., Shea, C. & Misulis, K. (2011). Using the context, input, process, and product evaluation model (CIPP) as a comprehensive framework to guide the planning, implementation, and assessment of service-learning programs. Journal of higher education and outreach engagement 15(4), 57 – 83.